Tag Archives: smile

Assignment 1 – tutor feedback

Noted from feedback this morning. The rest will come by email, to include refs.

Chris liked the way the blog is laid out – clear and accessible. There were a couple of links missing, but I have already sorted those out.

He said he also liked the idea for my assignment, thinking it quirky and using the assignment to look at an idea (flyers at the Festival) rather than simply taking pictures of five unrelated people. H also thought the text added value to the images, providing an explanation and another layer to the story. As a tutor he is much more interested in the context and concept than technical brilliance. We briefly talked about his own work, and how he is interested in injecting some humour into his images. He says his work is as much about the places he photographs, and the process of understanding them. He was complimentary about my research and references too.

We then discussed the significance of the smile in portraits. See my previous post here. I said that I thought the smile was an important part of the mask the subjects were wearing, as they promoted their shows, but that I had a niggly feeling that the smiles gave a snapshot aesthetic, which had not been my intention. We discussed how almost any expression is a mask, and that it is practically impossible to get to the essence of a person. He referred to the deadpan aesthetic, and Thomas Ruff’s influence, which had come from architecture, and tried to remove subjectivity, treating people like buildings. However, as a photographer, one should have control over the shoot and if a mask of any type is used, that is fine as long as it was the intention and can be explained.

We also touched on the photographer/subject/viewer power relationships, and how the photographer has most of the power. I have mentioned this in another post. I said that in the assignment series, I felt that I had most of the power, and we agreed that in a more collaborative portrait sitting, such as the one I have just done for Exercise 2.1 (same ref as above) the sitter has more agency. One should never forget though that the photographer has a lot of power in any portrait, in the setting and selection process.

Chris finished by saying he thought my reflections were good and also my research. The message was carry on, you are doing fine.

Moving on to considerations for assignment 2, he said that this one was more about the place than the person, and what tied the person to the place. He will be sending me a bullet pointed written report, but suggested in the meantime that I look at the following work:

Philip Lorac diCordia – Heads, and The Hustlers

Alec Soth

Joel Sternfeld – Stranger Passing

Bettina von Zwehl

Joel Meyerowitz

Stephen Shore

I like the video tutorial and felt it was very useful to enable us to get to know something about each other. Chris said that he usually did tutorials by phone, but was happy to have a go at video feedback.

Edited to add: Chris was admirably quick at sending me my feedback and it can be found here:tutor-feedback-part-1

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Smile, please!

p1490840Following up some of the discussion about my assignment at the Thames Valley Forum, I have been looking at the position of the Smile in current art photography. A question was put to me about why I had photographed my subjects smiling, and had not asked them to stand still and look blankly at the camera. My response was that I had wanted to capture the individuality and spontaneity of the subjects, but clearly this was considered by some to be incorrect, and they argued that the Smile is a mask which detracts from understanding a person. It was time to do some research and find out where the smile sits in current art photography.

Historically, painted portraits tended not to depict people smiling, and there appears to have been a practical reason for this. The teeth of most people were very poor because of lack of dental care and the majority tended to hide this by keeping their mouths shut for paintings. The advent of photography did not change this much, because for many years people needed to remain absolutely still for several seconds while the image was taken, and it is much easier to hold a straight face than to smile. Added to this, having a photographic portrait made was a serious (and initially an expensive) matter, and not something to be diminished by levity. Thus the serious portrait has traditionally been the preserve of the unsmiling. That is the easy bit; things get more complicated in recent times.

The idea of smiling for the camera only seems to have appeared in the early 20th century, and Dean (2011) has traced it back to public school photographs. From the start it was perceived as being deceitful and untrustworthy; the smile was seen as being a mask which hid the true nature of a subject. By opening their mouths and crinkling their eyes, subjects could pretend that everything was just fine, even when it wasn’t. Morris (2002) argues that the smile has evolved from pre-language appeasement gestures, and that it is now one of the most complex facial gestures that humans make, with a multiplicity of meanings, ranging from happiness to nervousness, friendliness to superciliousness. Correctly interpreting the meaning of a smile can make the difference between a successful and a disasterous encounter with a new acquaintance.Furthermore, the smile is easily open to misinterpretation, and often used as a sign indicating lack of mental faculty .

roger-ballen

© Roger Ballen

From early on, art photographers have shied away from the smile, and my understanding is that there are two reasons for this. Firstly, the smile has connotations of snapshots rather than serious photographs, people laughing on holiday for their friends back home, even if they were having a miserable time. Equally, the smile is ubiquitous in advertising, and is often associated with sentimentality, forced bonhomie and superficiality, so for photographers trying to differentiate themselves from this type of photography, a more serious demeanour in their subjects is helpful. I can understand this concern, but have a niggling feeling that there is a similarity between these ideas and the snobbery about colour and digital photography which was eventually overcome, and which allowed a significant expansion in creativity as a result.

The second reason is more complex. Diane Arbus talked about how her photography attempted to capture the gap between what the sitter hoped they would look like and what the photographer observed. Similarly, Joyce Tennison opined “we hide our bodies [with clothes] but our faces are naked and exposed.” Roland Barthes talked about how he became different when in front of the camera, and felt himself starting to ‘pose’, without consciously thinking about it. This makes for a very complex transaction between the photographer and the subject, with as Angier argues, the expert photographer trying to capture the individuality of the subject in an off-guard moment. Trying to sneak a peek behind the mask, as it were. He suggests as an exercise that we find a willing sitter, who should sit facing the camera and just look at it for an hour, while the photographer waits to press the shutter at the exact moment when the mask slips and their true nature is revealed. As an idea, this sounds potentially interesting, but also horribly dull for both participants. There is a feeling , articulated by Dijkstra, that this moment when the mask slips is about purity, something essential about human beings. Her images exude personality so she maybe has a point.

rineke-dijkstra

© Rineke Dijkstra

Moving forward, Thomas Ruff is the acknowledged grandfather of the current trend for a blank, expressionless stare. Ruff did his photography training under the Bechers, and consequently his portraits are minimalist and straightforward, in the manner of a passport photograph. This was a quite deliberate harking back to typology and the New Topographic movement, although Ruff has admitted that the images are heavily posed and his subjects prepped about how they should stand and what they should wear, so the concept of them being truly honest portraits is difficult to accept. Ruff argued that the blank expression is the ‘normal’ expression that people wear when they are not under scrutiny, and therefore it is a truer representation of them than any other expression or pose.

thomas-ruffs-portraits

Thomas Ruff’s portraits

 

We now seem to have got to a stage where any sign of subjectivity or emotion has been erased from the portrait. The blank stare is understood to limit any possible subjectivity of feeling on the part of the photographer, and to allow the viewer to make his/her own assumptions about the sitter, based on his/her own experiences of life and any background context that the photographer provides, i.e. identification and projection. Everyone is beginning to look the same and individuality/personality is being minimised in what appears to be an attempt to achieve authenticity, purity and the unmasking the ‘real’ human persona, the essence if you like. (Dean, 2011) However, it is difficult to square this with Bate’s (2009)  observations that the portrait is a transaction between the photographer and the sitter, with each trying to gain supremacy over the other, but with the ball weighted towards the photographer. The whole process is inherently personal and individualistic, and two photographers photographing the same individual are highly unlikely to produce identical work, as each inevitably imbues it with his/her own context and personality.

I have some issues with this view of the world. The first is that a portrait is supposed to be about the sitter, and if all traces of the individuality of the sitter are removed, is it a portrait any longer, or a piece of constructed photography? Secondly, we as humans are innately emotional. To remove any visual traces of emotion from a portrait not only makes it less interesting to view, but also reduces us all to typologies which only have value when seen as part of a set. Finally, can it not be argued that the blank stare is as much of a mask as the smile? Both are covering up the real feelings of the sitter. The smile though, is more mysterious and begs for interpretation, while the stare gives nothing away.

There have been a small number of recent attempts to reinstate the smile in art photography, notably Dean’s work Smile: a polemic on fine art portraiture (2011) and Amanda Smith’s 2012 attempt to curate an exhibition in Texas on the subject of the Smile. Neither was very successful, and Dean seems to have given up photography work altogether. It seems that the art world is not yet ready to shift its perspective on the idea of the smile as a kitsch, superficial hook which is only acceptable in the advertising world. I have just looked through the latest edition (issues 7852)  of the British Journal of Photography, which is devoted to portraiture, and it seems that emotional expression is slowly beginning to permeate art photography again, and in my opinion that can only be a good thing.

References

Angier, R. (2007) Train your gaze: a practical and theoretical introduction to portrait photography. AVA Publishing.

Bate, D. (2009) Photography: the key concepts. Bloomsbury.

Morris, D. (1977) People watching. London: Vintage.

http://www.fstopmagazine.com/pastissues/49/Dean.html

http://www.stephaniedean.com/

http://archive.boston.com/news/globe/living/articles/2007/11/04/heres_looking_at_you/?page=3

http://www.aicausa.org/news/2-articles-by-art-writing-workshop-participant-sarah-coleman

https://publicdomainreview.org/2013/09/18/the-serious-and-the-smirk-the-smile-in-portraiture/

http://www.metmuseum.org/connections/smile#/Complete/

http://southendasphoto.blogspot.co.uk/2013/10/deadpan-aesthetics-thomas-ruff.html

 

Assignment 1 – The Non-familiar

Your first assignment is to make five portraits of five different people from your local area who were previously unknown to you. Who you photograph is entirely your choice but don’t give in to the temptation to photograph people you know! You may want to explore the idea of types, thus sticking to a theme. Or the sitters could be very disparate, linked only by the fact that they come from your local area.

Give consideration to this and also how and where you photograph your sitters. Bearing in mind the strategies and techniques discussed in Part One, keep your set of images consistent and choose a technique that complements your conceptual approach. For example, do you want a series of location-based portraits? Do you want the portraits to be situated inside? If so, drawing on your experience in Exercise 1.2, how will you select your backgrounds in order to give context?

Background

The subject of this assignment came about through a process I have outlined in a previous post. As I had already attempted a series on local people I had not previously met, I felt I should try for another angle on the requirements that we were given. I had just arranged to go to the Edinburgh Fringe, where my youngest son had two productions this year, and it seemed sensible to look for a theme that had some connections with both the event and his own part in it. After some consideration, a typology of flyer distributors seemed appropriate, and indeed I encountered my son by chance during my shoot involved in this very activity. I have subsequently broadened the subject to say a little about the production that each individual was promoting, for reasons which will be explained in the text.

P1490791.jpg

William, my son, who happened to be handing out flyers during my photo shoot. (Not included in final 5 portraits as he is not a stranger)

Typologies have been a theme in photography for many years, and they ask the viewer to consider the differences and similarities between a collection of images on the same subject. The concept came from the Darwinian idea of classification and taxonomy and the late Victorians’ obsession with measuring and sorting everything from insects to grasses, and as photography provided a straightforward way of recording these, it was only a matter of time before the notion began to be applied to the photographic portrait.  The grandfather of typologies, August Sander, began his first series in the early 20th century, and his work was clearly influenced by the ideas of evolutionary systematics and eugenics that were prevalent at the time, and which allowed a “pseudo-scientific neutrality” while discussing matters which we now see as being completely outrageous (The ASK Team, 2012). His People of the 20th Century implicitly asks the viewer to consider what might be inferred about the subjects’ station in life and how this might be changing as the century progressed.

Modern examples of the typological portrait include Bruce Gilden’s Faces series, Rineke Dijkstra’s Beach Portraits and  Thomas Struth’s Family Portraits, all recent works which show that the typology as a genre of photography is still alive and well, over 100 years after it was first used. The convention for a series remains, as it has throughout, that all the images should be taken from the same viewpoint and should keep similar proportions and appearance. Sander firmly believed that a three quarter or full length pose was necessary in order to show the sitter’s full personality, but as time has gone on, this convention has been removed, and some modern examples, such as Goldin’s Faces involve extreme and very unflattering close-ups. For Sander, the background was also an important part of the images, allowing visual details about the sitter’s occupation and lifestyle to inform the viewer’s reading of the photograph.

On a more practical level, the assignment was clear that we should use people we had never met before as our subjects, and I found the Flickr series 100 strangers project was inspirational in considering how to approach people and set up the shoot.

Process

The format of my own typology was dictated by the location where I made the images. Originally, I had hoped to find a blank background for each person, but it immediately became obvious that this was not possible. The Royal Mile was far too busy to find a quiet corner, and I did not want to use more time than necessary with each sitter, as I was aware that they were there to do a job. As a compromise, I opted to photograph they with an open aperture to blur the backgrounds, thus ensuring that the subjects themselves were clearly the focus of the exercise. I had also planned to use Fill Flash but quickly gave up on this as I was worried that the images were over-exposing, despite the use of exposure compensation.

Assignment

Every August, The City of Edinburgh plays host to the Edinburgh Festival – a massive international pooling of arts, including theatre, music, dance, reading, and art. People come from all over the globe to participate in the event, and it is known as the largest of its type in the world.

Alongside the main Festival is a separate event, The Festival Fringe, where over 3000 shows are put on in a host of smaller venues across the city, ranging from the merely odd to the downright weird. The Fringe is the place for ambitious young performers to showcase their talents in the hope that they will receive good reviews and subsequently be seen by important agents and others who might help them in their careers. Many of the actors are students and other young people who are living on a shoestring to be part of this event and who are unlikely to cover even the costs of putting on their shows. Furthermore, a high proportion of the events are free, with punters being asked to make a contribution if they enjoy the show. Participation is a highly risky undertaking, as a poor review or bad location might mean that one’s show fails dismally and expensively, over and over, every day for three weeks.

With 3000 shows to choose from, competition for punters is fierce and each day, before their show, actors have to tout for business and the main place that this happens is on the Royal Mile. Whether or not their show is doing well, actors have to accost hundreds of people daily in the street and try to sell them the idea that their show is worth seeing. As punters roam up and down the Mile, flyers are thrust into their hands from all sides, and people launch into their “Elevator Pitch” – a 15 second resumé of the show and why one should see it. With so many events throughout the day and evening in a host of co-located venues, it is possible to attend several shows in a day, (I myself have managed seven), and it is worth encouraging visitors to fill any gaps they have during their schedule.

For this assignment, I decided to photograph the people handing out flyers. I would then put each image alongside a picture of the flyer and a published review of the piece. The selection of subjects was made on the basis of who approached me, rather than me actively seeking out subjects myself. All of the people I met were happy to have their photograph taken after I had chatted to them about their show and what brought them to Edinburgh.

Images

Paul, from London - Ask an Archaeologist

 

Paul, who is the Archaeologist.

Ask an Archaeologist – 4* http://www.broadwaybaby.com/shows/paul-duncan-mcgarrity-ask-an-archaeologist-/713864

 

 

 

Luke, who was giving out flyers for another show to help pay for

 

Luke, who was being paid to hand out flyers for someone else’s show.

Here’s Some Black for the Union Jack – 0*

No reviews

 

 

 

George, from London - The Pond Wife

 

George, who was handing out flyers for a friend.

Pond Wife – 3-4*

http://www.broadwaybaby.com/shows/pond-wife/713268

 

 

 

Marianna, from London - This Earth

 

Marianna, who strongly believed in the political value of this show.

This Earth – 2*

http://www.broadwaybaby.com/shows/this-earth/715468

 

 

 

Naomi, from Bristol - Zero

 

 

Naomi, who wasn’t sure about being photographed to begin with, until I explained what I was doing.

Zero – 4*

http://www.broadwaybaby.com/shows/zero/714982

 

 

Discussion

As part of the process of image selection, my fellow OCA students were asked for their opinions, and the consensus was that what drew them together as much as their activity was that they all looked “so damned young and happy“. This led me to consider the second element of the series, which is the text. For each subject, a rating has been added from the Edinburgh Fringe site, and where available a review has been included. None of the shows being advertised were big name events, and as one can see, some were considered by reviewers to be much better than others. It is interesting to consider how Marianna must feel, trying to promote a show that has only gained 2 stars and is therefore unlikely to be a “must see” show for many people. Trying to hook people off the street is the only way that a show like hers will get an audience, whereas Paul’s show has attracted enough attention for it to be on the list for people who know nothing about him.

So what can one say about these portraits? Using Bate’s elements of a portrait (2009), the faces are uniformly happy and young, and with the exception of Paul, they also look excited about being part of such a prestigious event. The sitters are dressed very casually, except for Paul the archaeologist, whose garb quite deliberately harks back to the pre-war years. One can see from his flyer that he is dressed ready to go on stage, and that he is taking his theme from the Indiana Jones films. Most are carrying rucksacks, presumably to enable them to keep their hands free. The locations are all outside and three of the images have either people or flyers as the background. It is clearly a busy area in a city.

The most interesting element of the set is the pose and the body language that it gives away. As Badger (2007, p. 174) says, “the subject’s pose is the presentation of their identity to the photographer, an act which ensures the preservation of that identity…the pose is the subject’s defence.” Additionally, the pose is part of a collaborative transaction between the photographer and sitter, with both attempting to impose their own agenda on the process, (although the photographer has the upper hand, being in charge of the camera and having control over the exact moment the shutter is opened). (Badger, 2007, p 170). In this particular set, I did not show the photographs I took to any of the participants, and therefore it can be argued that the images were a gift from them to me, given freely and without expectations.

Sander apparently “constructed his images in archetectonic fashion, giving his subjects time to present themselves in an arrangement that felt right to them” (The ASX Team, 2012) and I have done the same with this series. Luke and Marianna are facing square on to the camera, looking confident and relaxed. Marianna holds a cup of coffee in front of her (and in fact she also had various other paraphernalia which is out of sight), which one might perceive as either a barrier or a comfort item. Paul, George and Naomi are facing slightly off to one side or other, and in the case of George and Naomi, there is a hint of embarrassment and self-consciousness in their stance. Paul, on the other hand, looks relaxed and much more professional than the others; he is clearly assured about his product and is effectively in-character while he does this necessary work. The flyers themselves function as props, both as a unifying force and so that the subjects have something to do with their hands.

It is also interesting to consider the importance of body language in informal portraits, and how the viewer’s understanding of the subject, or lack of it, may influence their reading of an image. Desmond Morris’s Peoplewatching (2002) is not on every student’s bookshelf, but I am beginning to think it should be, as students of portraiture need to be able to decode body language in an organised and objective way.

Finally, can one infer anything about the success of the show from the manner and demeanour of the five people? I am not sure that one can. There is no perceivable difference in expression between them which one could ascribe to their show’s success or failure. Given that the subject’s financial and emotional wellbeing is so clearly attached to the success or failure of their show, I am  forced to the conclusion that Luke and Marianna are either very good actors, or do not personally have a stake in the productions they are advertising.

Assignment preparation posts, including contact sheets.

https://hollyocaidentityplace.wordpress.com/2016/08/22/more-musings-on-editing/

https://hollyocaidentityplace.wordpress.com/2016/08/20/assignment-1-the-non-familiar-draft/

https://hollyocaidentityplace.wordpress.com/2016/08/13/first-thoughts-on-assignment-1/

References

Badger, G. (2007) The genius of photography: how photography has changed our lives. London: Quadrille.

Bate, D. (2009) Photography: the key concepts. London: Bloomsbury. pp.67-86

Jeffrey, I. (1981) Photography: a concise history. London. Thames & Hudson. pp. 130-136.

Morris, D. (2002) Peoplewatching: the Desmond Morris guide to body language. Vintage.

Nicholls, J. (n.d.) Typologies. At: http://www.photopedagogy.com/typologies.htm. (Accessed on 31.08.16)

The ASX Team (2012) August Sander – a profile of the people (2002). At: http://www.americansuburbx.com/2012/04/theory-august-sander-profile-of-people.html. (Accessed on 31.08.16)

The Edinburgh Festival Fringe (n.d.)  The Edinburgh Festival Fringe: defying the norm since 1947. At: https://www.edfringe.com/ (Accessed on 31 .08.16)

Reflection

Demonstration of technical and visual skills

I do not feel this project took me out of my comfort zone technically. My original plan had been to photograph the subjects using a very shallow depth of field and fill light. In the event, neither was possible and I think that was largely because I became muddled over my camera settings in the heat of the moment. In an ideal world, the backgrounds would have been much more diffuse. I did consider producing the blur using Photoshop, but decided that it detracted from the integrity of the images.

On the other hand, I am reasonably confident that my post-processing successfully drew together the images. The originals were taken in a variety of different lighting situations, from bright sunlight to heavy shade, and I feel I have managed to unify them in a pleasing way.

Quality of outcome

In terms of collecting a range of similar portraits, I think I have been quite successful. The contact sheet indicates that my initial set was sufficiently large to enable my to select a final five which worked together as a series. I also feel that considering the psychological aspect of the relative success or failure of the shows that the subjects were advertising has added another layer of narrative and interest to the series.

Demonstration of creativity

I am not confident that any particular level of creativity has been exhibited in this series, except perhaps the subject matter. Quite deliberately, I had opted for the genre of street photography, and in order to maintain consistency, it was not possible to be very creative. The success of the series relates to the story it tells, rather than any specific creative slant.

Context

I have read around the subjects of portraiture and typologies in some depth for this project, and already had a fair amount of knowledge gleaned during the Context & Narrative module. Whilst typology and the unfamiliar was not my preferred section of this unit (the archive appealed to me more), I undertook several projects in the field, including artists at the Gloucester Art Fair and allotmenteers. As portraiture is a genre of photography that I have avoided up until recently, I am pleased about my growing understanding of the art, and have been practising in my own time, as well as for the course.